Given from the Catholic Broadcasting Station 2SM Sydney Australia
Choose a topic from Vol 2:
As a general estimate, I would say seven, namely, Gnosticism, Manichaeism, Arianism, Nestorianism, Eutychianism, Greek Orthodoxy, and Protestantism. I have given them in the order of their appearance on the stage of history.
That is a very comprehensive question, and I can but give here a general answer. In each case the dissident movement began either in a denial of the teachings of the Catholic Church, or in a rebellion against her authority. Both aspects were always, of course, ultimately involved. Those who began by rejecting the teachings of the Church soon found themselves in rebellion against her authority; whilst those who began by rebelling against her authority soon found themselves denying her doctrines. The Gnostics, Manichaeans, Arians, Nestorians, and Eutychians, began with doctrinal error, and ended by defying the authority of Rome. The Greek Church began by defying the authority of Rome, and has ended in a denial of much Catholic teaching, today becoming more and more infected by rationalism and modernism. Protestantism began in Germany by Luther's rejection of Catholic doctrine and his subsequent rejection of the authority of Rome; whilst in England it began by Henry VIII.'s rejection of the Pope's authority, followed by Elizabeth's repudiation of Catholic doctrine.